Olor de violetes (Amsterdam) (Catalan Edition)
For example, whether an audio item is non-essential background music, or whether it is an audible alternative to a text item. This functionality is provided in XSL via the role property.
Our goal is to provide for time-based multimedia presentations equivalent functionality that we are used to for text transformations. Given this goal, we now derive a number of specific requirements for a multimedia styling and formatting vocabulary, based on the use cases discussed in the previous section. A multimedia formatting model needs to be able to specify the sizes and positions of the areas in which the content is to be rendered. Unlike text, however, these calculations cannot be based on the position of the content in the text-flow.
Inserting line, column and page breaks in a stream of multimedia items will, in general, not result in a coherent multimedia presentation. Absolute positioning of media items should be supported for authors that want full control over their layout, just as in text formatting. This is, however, too low level to be the only mechanism provided. In addition, explicit and high level relative positioning should also be supported, both among media items e.
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In addition, formats that provide only absolute positioning such as SMIL 1. In addition to the position and sizes of the areas, the model also needs to describe the visual style of presentations, including colors, fonts, paddings, borders, background images etc. Note that, in general, it does not suffice to specify these style properties at the overall presentation level: the constituent media items often need to be re styled to get the result. In this particular case, the text content itself can be styled since it is generated. A formatting model thus needs to be able to account for both dependency directions.
A multimedia formatting language should be able to model the full temporal behavior of today's multimedia presentation formats. This includes not only the basic orchestration i. Also note that interactive multimedia presentations do not necessarily have a linear temporal structure. The exclusive element in SMIL 2.
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Part of that temporal style is already determined by the orchestration of the document e. Other temporal aspects, such as the type and duration of the transitions used between scenes, are also an essential part of the style of the document and need to be expressible in the formatting vocabulary.
Furthermore, in some cases it is convenient to model background music not as one of the main media items of the presentation, but as an optional, and easily changeable style property. A template approach is required to allow the extraction of media items from a known collection to be placed in a consistent layout. Such a template specified at the top level needs to be sufficiently flexible that it can be applied to all possible inputs. This is more difficult for multimedia than for text since texts will fit in the template of a reasonably designed master page, independently of the number of columns, margin sizes etc.
In data-driven multimedia applications, where the number, size and type of the media items that need to be displayed is not known until runtime, template design is much more difficult. Bottom-up transformation rules allow the choice of a particular composite formatting object to depend on the layout of its children. For example, two portrait images might fit together on the screen only when stacked horizontally, while their landscape counterparts might fit only in a vertical arrangement.
A combination of both would fit only when displayed one after the other in time. For data driven applications, it might not be known in advance whether the images are landscape and portrait, so the style sheet would need to be able to make the data-driven decision at runtime. Some verbs take clauses as complements, and it is not surprising to find the following examples in which the shared element is a CP. English- Korean , Park, p. Whereas, the complementizer is also doubled in examples 8 and 9 above, sometimes the complementizer is phonetically realized in one language only, as in 10 below.
The examples given so far contain lexical verbs. Dutch- Turkish , Backus, , p. English-Korean, Park, , p. English- Hindi , Pandit, , p. A similar example is 15 below, where the doubled element is an auxiliary verb cliticized with the negation marker, and the shared element is a verb or a verb phrase. The doubled element is not necessarily a verb or an auxiliary verb. Examples 8 and 9 above have already shown that a complementizer may be doubled. In 16 below, it is a subordinator, which is similar to a complementizer in taking a TP or IP complement, that is being doubled.
English- Marathi , Hicks, , p. English- Cantonese , Chan, , p. In generative grammar, they are most probably not instantiations of a P category but more likely of a functional head in the D domain, probably a quantifier head Q. English- Japanese , Furukawa, , p. Summarizing this survey of portmanteau constructions, we see that heads which take part in the construction include verb, auxiliary verb, preposition or adposition , complementizer, subordinator, and some functional heads in the DP domain. Other categories which act as syntactic heads, including noun, adjective, modal verb or conjunction [with a possible exception in 23 , see below] have not been found in existing data of portmanteau constructions see more discussion below.
In all corpora in which the portmanteau construction is found, the bilingual speakers also produce non-portmanteau code-switched constructions; that is, these heads do not have to be doubled [see Chan, , for a quick survey, also see 39 — 44 below]. In other words, the portmanteau construction is an optional structure. Shona- English , Myers-Scotton, , p. Repetition may also take place with a word or free morpheme and a bound morpheme which are synonymous.
Logic, Language, and Computation
Spanish- Aymara , Stolz, , p. In particular, as a syntactic head combines with its complement in a fixed order i. Hence, this paper focuses on the portmanteau construction or syntactic doubling in code-switching i.
The remaining parts of this paper are structured as follows. The next section discusses differences between portmanteau constructions and monolingual syntactic doubling. The following one proposes constraints on the portmanteau constructions. These constructions are then tested against current paradigms of the syntax of code-switching and more general syntactic theories of phrase structure e. A new account based on syntax and processing will then be forwarded, followed by a discussion of some residual issues and the conclusions. The following are sampled from the phenomena discussed in the volume of Barbiers et al.
Finland Swedish, Barbiers, , p. Scottish English, Barbiers, , p. Dutch, Barbiers, , p. Afrikaans, Biberauer, , p. Swiss German, Barbiers, , p. Spanish, Barbiers, , p. Doubling of pronouns such as 24 is distinct from the portmanteau construction in the sense that the doubled pronouns have no complements. In 25 , however, the two modal auxiliary verbs i. In a sense the syntactic category of modal verb, presumably a functional head in the I or T domain, is doubled, but the modals here are two different words of two different meanings.
In portmanteau sentences, the doubled heads appear to be of the same word though realized in two different phonetic forms associated with two separate languages. However, as shown in the English translation and explained by Barbiers , p.
In portmanteau sentences, the doubled heads appear to carry essentially the same meaning 5. This movement account does not extend to portmanteau sentences, if we assume that the doubled head X A and X B is of the same syntactic category e. In 28 , the doubled indefinite determiners do seem to be the same word conveying the same meaning. Nonetheless, the first one, which is optional, is licensed by a degree or quantity expression [e.
In portmanteau sentences, neither instance of the doubled heads seems to be licensed by an element other than its complement i. In portmanteau constructions, both verbs are transitive and argument-sharing.
Mesoscopic Phenomena in Multifunctional Materials | SpringerLink
In portmanteau sentences, both instances of the doubled head are both contiguous to their complement. Again, the portmanteau sentences are palindromic only in the sense of their syntactic sequence i. This comparison with monolingual syntactic doubling and discussion of the names i. As commented by Sankoff et al. Crucially, portmanteau sentences have been attested in disparate speech communities and in different datasets, involving various language-pairs.