SOLO Taxonomy: A Guide for Schools Bk 2: Planning for differentiation

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  2. Bloom’s Taxonomy: The Ultimate Guide
  3. 6 Strategies For Teaching With Bloom’s Taxonomy
  4. Download SOLO Taxonomy: A Guide for Schools Bk 2: Planning for differentiation PDF - NorbertHal
  5. Differentiated instruction

Student learning outcomes show evidence of comparison, causal thinking, classification, sequencing, analysis, part whole thinking, analogy, application and the formulation of questions. At the extended abstract level, understanding at the relational level is re-thought at a higher level of abstraction, it is transferred to another context.

Student learning outcomes at the extended abstract level show prediction, generalisation, evaluation, theorising, hypothesising, creation, and or reflection. These advantages concern not only item construction and scoring, but incorporate features of the process of evaluation that pay attention to how students learn, and how teachers devise instructional procedures to help students use progressively more complex cognitive processes. Unlike the Bloom taxonomy, which tends to be used more by teachers than by students, the SOLO can be taught to students such that they can learn to write progressively more difficult answers or prompts.

There is a closer parallel to how teachers teach and how students learn. Both teachers and students often progress from more surface to deeper constructs and this is mirrored in the four levels of the SOLO taxonomy. There is no necessary progression in the manner of teaching or learning in the Bloom taxonomy.

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The levels can be interpreted relative to the proficiency of the students. Six year old students can be taught to derive general principles and suggest hypotheses, though obviously to a different level of abstraction and detail than their older peers. Using the SOLO method, it is relatively easy to construct items to assess such abstractions. The SOLO taxonomy not only suggests an item writing methodology, but the same taxonomy can be used to score the items.

This can lead to more dependability of scoring.

SOLO Taxonomy: Teaching English in a Secondary School

These are assessments for learning and include diagnostic or pre-assessments that the teacher uses to help guide instruction and benefit each learner. Pre-assessments should be conducted several weeks before the unit of study and should not be graded. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence test, or Visual, Auditory, or Kinesthetic learner , and 2 by identifying knowledge of student understandings i. Both of these types of pre-assessment are used to design student tasks, particularly when a student might require support, enrichment, or have different learning styles, intelligence, or interests.

The goals of differentiated instruction are to develop engaging tasks that challenge and enhance learning for each student. Instructional activities are flexible and based and evaluated on content, process, product, and learning environment. This instructional approach and choice of content are driven by the data from students' assessment results and from the outcomes of other screening tools. Pre-assessments can gather information about each student's strengths, comforts, or areas of weakness.

This leads to appropriate differentiation that accommodates each student's learning needs and preferences. Assessments should be used as a tool to create clear, and meaningful instruction that guides each student towards challenging but not frustrating activities.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: The Ultimate Guide

Assessment is the process of gathering information from a variety of sources such as assignments, teacher observations, class discussions, and tests and quizzes. This information can be gathered through diagnostic pre-assessments , formative , and summative assessments , as well as Individual Education Plans, Ontario Student Records, student interest surveys, and multiple intelligence or learning style inventories. Assessment for learning not only includes diagnostic or pre-assessment measures but also formative assessment. Formative assessments are used during a unit to provide understanding about what the student is learning, and continually guide instructional decisions.

All these ongoing assessments help the teacher know students and their needs so they can select effective teaching and learning strategies and interventions that maximize student achievement. Consistent program review and diagnosis of whole-class and individual student responses not only provides ongoing feedback to enhance teaching and learning for teachers but students and parents as well. Teachers use ongoing assessments to gather information about a student's knowledge and capabilities, to direct future planning, to monitor student progress, and to evaluate student achievement.

Students must be assessed based on a standard rather than the level of assigned work. A student who struggles in a particular subject may be given an assignment geared toward their abilities to help them learn. They may do well at the adjusted work they are given.


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That does not mean they should be given the same grade for their work, as the child who does not get an adjustment assignment. The content of lessons may be differentiated based on what students already know. The most basic content of a lesson should cover the standards of learning set by the district or state. Some students in a class may be completely unfamiliar with the concepts in a lesson, some students may have partial mastery of the content - or display mistaken ideas about the content, and some students may show mastery of the content before the lesson begins.

The teacher may differentiate the content by designing activities for groups of students that cover different areas of Bloom's taxonomy. For example, students who are unfamiliar with the concepts may be required to complete tasks on the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, and application.

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Students with partial mastery may be asked to complete tasks in the application, analysis and evaluation areas, and students who have high levels of mastery may be asked to complete tasks in evaluation and synthesis. When teachers differentiate content, they may adapt what they want students to learn or how students access the knowledge, understanding, and skills Anderson, In these instances, educators are not varying student objectives or lowering performance standards for students.

They use different texts, novels, or short stories at a reading level appropriate for each individual student. Teachers can use flexible groups and have students assigned to like groups listening to audiobooks or accessing specific internet sources. Students could have a choice to work in pairs, groups, or individually, but all students are working towards the same standards and objectives. Understanding by Design UbD is an educational strategy that may be used to inform content in a differentiated classroom. Combining these two educational theories may allow educators to simultaneously "craft powerful curriculum in a standards-dominated era and ensure academic success for the full spectrum of learners.

6 Strategies For Teaching With Bloom’s Taxonomy

The process of how the material in a lesson is learned may be differentiated for students based on their learning styles, taking into account what standards of performance are required for the age level. This stage of differentiation allows students to learn based either on what method is easiest for them to gain knowledge, or what may challenge them most: some students may prefer to read about a topic or may require practice in reading , and others may prefer to listen or require practice in listening , or acquire knowledge by manipulating objects associated with the content.

Information may be presented in multiple ways by the teacher, and may be based on any available methods or materials. Many teachers use areas of Multiple Intelligences to provide learning opportunities. Commonalities in the assessment results lead to grouping practices that are designed to meet the students' needs. The grouping practices must be flexible, as groups change with regard to the need that must be addressed. Regardless of whether the differentiation of instruction is based upon student readiness, interests, or needs, the dynamic flow of grouping and regrouping is one of the foundations of differentiated instruction.

Download SOLO Taxonomy: A Guide for Schools Bk 2: Planning for differentiation PDF - NorbertHal

It is important for a differentiated classroom to allow some students to work alone, if this is their best modality for a particular task. Nunley, Over-reliance 8. Further reading.


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  • Basic knowledge , the first stage of learning, leads to the development of the skills and abilities that are crucial to completing the pedagogical process: Comprehension , application , analysis , synthesis and evaluation. While there are subcategories within each, each stage lies on a continuum. Each year for the following 16 years, Bloom and his colleagues revised and refined the framework at the American Psychological Association convention.

    In , the final version was published as the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives , showing the path of educational attainment through six orders of learning. While it initially aided in the assessment of students, it quickly became a tool for teachers to devise their curriculum, outline clear learning objectives, and design classroom activities. It has been adapted for use in classrooms from K—12 to college and university level, and as proof of its versatility, you can even apply it to a series of Seinfeld episode clips, each relating to a level of the taxonomy.

    Factual knowledge is characterized by terminology and discrete facts. Conceptual by categories, principles, theories, and models, looking at the relationships among all elements within a larger structure that helps it work together. Procedural is the knowledge of a specific technique, process, or methodology: essentially, how to do something. Is the student actually aware of their own cognition? It also makes it simpler for students to understand what is expected of them. Instructors are encouraged to view learning objectives in behavioral terms, such that they can see what students are capable of as a direct result of the instruction they have received in each level.

    Using the categorization, educators can effectively organize objectives and create lesson plans with appropriate content and instruction to lead students up the pyramid of learning. And that teachers are able to effectively assess this learning on an ongoing basis, as the course moves through each stage of the framework. It starts with the most basic level of knowledge at the bottom, Remembering, whereby students recall facts and basic concepts, and moves up towards the pinnacle: Create, where new or original work is produced in some fashion.

    The lower-order skills require less cognitive processing, but provide an important base for learning. Meanwhile, the higher levels require deeper learning and a greater degree of cognitive processing, which can presumably only be achieved once the lower-order skills have been mastered.

    Differentiated instruction

    When course planning, bear in mind the implications—how quickly to introduce new concepts, when to reinforce them and how to test them. The first stage, remember , is about recalling facts and concepts. A student can define and duplicate, make a list, memorize points, repeat information, and make valid statements. But this does not prove comprehension. This is where understand , the next level, comes in.

    The student explains ideas and concepts, discusses and describes a topic in detail, explains what it means, recognizes it and translates the facts in some way.